Pitigliano is a town in the province of Grosseto, located about 80 kilometres (50 mi) south-east of the city of Grosseto, in Italy. The municipality covers an area of 102,89 square kilometres (39,73 sq mi) and has 3 971 inhabitants, with a density of 39 inhabitants per square kilometre. The quaint old town is known as the little Jerusalem, for the historical presence of a Jewish community that has always been well integrated into the social context and that has its own synagogue.
Pitigliano is home to a series of artificial cuts into the tufa rock to varying depths ranging from less than 1 metre (3,3 ft) to over 10 metres (33 ft). At the bottom of these cuts (Italian: tagliate) are carved channels, apparently for water, although some take the form of steps. The purpose of the cuts is not known: the three main theories are that they were roads, quarries, or water conveyance schemes; they radiate outward from the base of the butte of Pitigliano, down to the rivers then back to the top of the plateau that surrounds the town. A few very brief Etruscan inscriptions are said to have been found on the walls of the cuts, but are ill documented.
The Orsini Fortress
The Orsini Fortress, which achieved its present state in 1545 but represents a reworking of the earlier medieval fortress.
The historic center is characterized mainly by the 16th-century synagogue, in which the Aron stand on the back wall and the center Tevah; preserved inscriptions on the walls are Bible verses while overhead the women’s gallery is reserved for women. Under the Jewish temple are the venues for the ritual bath, the striking of unleavened oven, the kosher butcher, the kosher winery and Dyeing. The ancient Ghetto revolved around the synagogue along the present path Zuccarelli and in some lanes that originate from this road onto the alley Goito you reach the Old Mill Pelliccetti who was serving the Jewish community.
The Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul was built prior to 1500, and remodeled during the 16th century and later in a baroque-style. The façade is flanked on the left from the bell tower that has plastered the bottom, but maintains its original medieval appearance in tufa. The baroque interior houses works by Guidoccio Cozzarelli and Pietro Aldi. The cathedral overlooks the Piazza San Gregorio, which is home to the Palace of the Community and the Palace of Justice.